Soursop / Guanabana is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America: Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela. Soursop is also produced in Somalia. Today, it is also grown in some areas of Southeast Asia, as well as in some Pacific islands. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. It is in the same genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.
The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate. Other common names include: Evo (Ewe, Volta Region, Ghana), Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region, Ghana) guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: [gɾɐviˈɔlɐ]), anona (European Portuguese), corossol (French),කටු අනෝදා (Sinhalese), sorsaka (Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw, guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, nangka blanda, sirsak, zuurzak and nangka londa. In Malayalam, it is called mullaatha, literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known Indian names are shul-ram-fal and Lakshmana Phala. and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit). The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana.
Cultivation and uses The plant is grown as a commercial herbcrop for its 20–30 cm (7.9–12 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of up to 15 lb (6.8 kg), making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop. Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures. The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation. The sweet pulp is used to make juice, as well as candies, sorbets, and i
Health The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2. Preliminary in vitro laboratory research suggests that Graviola may have potential to treat some infections. Research carried out in the Caribbean has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson’s disease due to the very high concentration of annonacin.